The link layer is responsible for sending data between two nodes which have a direct connection between each other. But it only allows us to communicate with those machines with a direct connection.
The network layer allows us to communicate with nodes that are connected any where in the network.
The main task of the network layer is to get packets from any one node in the network to any other node. There are two main tasks that are accomplished by the network layer:
Forwarding is when a single node in the network receives a packet and must decide where to send it next. This is a local decision and must be made quickly (on the nanosecond scale). Forwarding is normally done in hardware.
Routing is the global decision of how a packet should go from its source to its final destination. This is done in software and typically takes much longer (on the second or millisecond scale).
Unlike other layers, there is one predominant network layer protocol which is the "Internet Protocol", or IP.
In order to perform forwarding or routing, we first need to have some way of representing a packets source and destination. IP uses addresses for this purpose. In version 4 of IP, addresses are 32-bits. In version 6 of IP, addresses are 128-bits.
IPv6 offers many more addresses than IPv4, and will need to be adopted as the Internet grows. However, IPv4 is currently still used far more widely than IPv6, so that is what we will discuss here. Differences between the two versions are small, and will be pointed out.
An IPv4 address is 32 bits, which is 4 bytes. They are typically written in dotted decimal notation. Here, each of the 4 bytes are written in decimal, with dots separating them. Each of the values can range from 0 to 255.
For instance, the IP address 22.214.171.124 is the four-bytes with those
decimal values. It can be translated into binary as
Because there are 32 bits, there are 232 possible IP addresses which is just over 4 billion. We are just about out of these addresses, though there are ways to avoid the problem as we will see later.
IPv6 uses 128 bits for each address. This means there are 2128 possible IPv6 addresses. This is a very large number, enough to assign an address to every atom on the surface of the earth 100 times over.
IP addresses are not just assigned randomly to different hosts and routers, instead they are generally assigned hierarchically. Usually the first $N$ bits determine which subnet a machine is a part of.
A subnet, also just called a network, is a small portion of the Internet run by one home or business. In the figure below, there are two subnets connected together. The first has three machines with addresses beginning with the "210.1.1" prefix.
Machines in the second subnet all start with "210.1.2". In this way the first three bytes (24 bits) tell us which subnet a machine is part of. The last byte (8 bits) tell us which machine in that subnet we are talking about.
We will often write the address of the subnet by giving the portion of the address that identifies it, followed by a slash, and then the number of bits in the subnet address, for example "126.96.36.199/24" for the first subnet in the figure.
Sometimes, subnets are identified with a subnet mask which identifies
which bits are part of the subnet address and which identify individual machines.
If a bit is part of the subnet address, it is a 1 in the mask, otherwise it's a 0.
In the examples above, the masks would be
255.255.255.0. A byte of
all 1's is 255, so this signifies the first three bytes are all part of the subnet
address and the last is not.
Originally, the Internet used a classful addressing scheme which separated the Internet of subnets of different classes:
|Class||Subnet Bytes||Number of Addresses|
In this scheme, if you needed to establish a network, you had to decide which class to create. If you needed, say, 300 machines in the network, you had to obtain a class B network. This was of course quite wasteful since many addresses were assigned to subnets that would never use them.
Now the Internet uses a classless strategy called Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR). This allows the creation of subnets with any number of bits for the subnet address. The example network above uses 24 bits, but you could create a subnet with 10 bits, or any other value.
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is in charge of assigning blocks of IP addresses. It allocates numbers to ISP companies which sell them to individual businesses and organizations.
Once a subnet has been created, the subnet portion of an address is fixed. But how do individual hosts know which particular address they have in that network? They can be assigned manually when the network is setup, but it's more common to use a protocol called DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol).
DHCP allows a host to obtain an IP address on a subnet automatically. DHCP is widely used, because most people do not wish to configure IP addresses manually, especially with devices like laptops and phones that connect to multiple networks throughout the day.
DHCP has four main steps:
255.255.255.255which causes all nodes to forward the message on. The message is a "discover message" asking for an address When this is seen by the DHCP server (often builtin to a router), it handles the request.
DHCP also allows a client to ask for a renewal of its allocated IP address if it is still being used.
Because there are a limited number of IPv4 addresses, but many devices connected to the Internet, we have come up with a trick to give multiple devices what appears to be the same IP address. This is very widely used in subnets and is called Network Address Translation, or NAT.
For example, consider the following network with three hosts and one router:
Here, the machines in the subnet are given IP addresses beginning with
192.168.1. These are local, or internal IP addresses and only
make sense inside of this subnet. The router has both an internal IP and
an external IP address.
When one of these three machines communicate with the outside world, they
will all appear to be using the address
The following IP address ranges are reserved for these local addresses:
NAT makes all traffic coming out of a subnet use one "real" IP address. This greatly saves IP address space, but it gives us an issue to solve: How do foreign machines communicate with particular machines on a subnet?
For example, say that all three of the machines in the subnet request various Wikipedia articles? The Wikipedia web server sees these as all coming from the same machine. How can it give the right page to the right client?
The answer is that the router keeps track of this for us. When a packet is sent from one of the hosts through the router, the router does the following things:
For instance, when a host connects to Wikipedia, it will have the destination IP
address and port fixed. It will initially have the source IP address of
along with some source port number, let's say 10802. The router will generate a new port
number, let's say 93407 for this communication. It will then doctor up the packet so that
the source has this new port number and the external IP
188.8.131.52. It then
puts this entry into the NAT table:
|NAT Port||Source IP||Original Port|
The Wikipedia server then sees the port number for its client as 93407. When it sends a response,
it will include this port number. When the router gets the response, it can look back in the NAT
table and know to forward all communication with that port number to the client at
It will also fix the packets back with the original port number for the host.
If all three machines connect to Wikipedia, the router will give them different port numbers, and so there will be different NAT table entries for them. That way the router can forward all the traffic to the right hosts. Moreover, the hosts do not need to know that their IP address is not "real".
Below is a diagram of an IP version 4 packet:
The many fields are described below:
IPv6 packets are extremely similar with the following differences:
Now that we have discussed the way hosts are addressed, and what comprises IP packets, we can look at how they are forwarded through the network. A diagram of a router is given below:
The main job of the router is to take in packets from one or more input ports, and pass them along to one of its output ports. Packets may be stored in queues as they are waiting to be forwarded.
The "switching fabric" connects the input ports with the output ports. This could be done with a shared bus, which means only one transmission can happen at a time. It could also be done with a crossbar network which means multiple transmissions could happen at the same time.
These two approaches are depicted below:
A shared bus is usually sufficient for small, home and office routers. Crossbar networks are more efficient, however.
A router's queues are small memory locations that can hold packets as they are waiting to be processed. As depicted, packets can be stored in queues before or after being forwarded. The reason input queues are needed is because the router may receive packets faster than it can forward them. It needs output queues because it may forward packets faster than they can be sent out.
What happens if a queue becomes full? The router simply drops the packets which come after that point. IP makes no guarantees to deliver anything, it just does the best it can.
There are many, many ways that the queues can operate. Three common approaches are:
WFQ is widely implemented, but there are many more queueing strategies.
So once a router picks a packet to forward, how does it actually determine where to send it? It decides based on the packet's IP address. Routers maintain tables that tell it which of its output interfaces to put a packet on based on where its IP address falls. Because IP addresses are hierarchical, it does this based on the prefix of the address. For instance, we might have the following:
Here we have a possible routing table for a router that could be part of an organization's network. The first three entries tell the router to forward packets with those particular prefixes to other routers.
The fourth looks like it may present a problem. It overlaps a portion of the third rule. In this case, routers will always pick the longest prefix that matches. This way, addresses starting with 10.3.99 will go to one particular link, while others starting with 10.3 will go someplace else.
The "otherwise" rule tells the router to send all other packets to another interface by default (probably to the ISP as they aren't part of this subnet).
Routers perform hardware lookups on these tables to quickly forward packets throughout the network.
We have covered the complex topic of how different nodes in the global Internet can be addressed, what is inside of IP packets, and how routers operate.
We've seen that routers use routing tables to forward packets. The next obvious question is, how do these routing tables get built in the first place? Also, if the network changes, how do they get updated?
The answer to these questions lie in routing algorithms which we will cover next time.
Copyright © 2021 Ian Finlayson | Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.